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What is Gluten and Dairy Intolerance? What is the difference between an allergy and intolerance/sensitivity. Latest medical research. Open to the public.
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TOPIC: GF Diet not friendly to gut bacteria

GF Diet not friendly to gut bacteria 23 May 2009 11:27 #598

  • Debra
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Don't get too concerned yet, this is a very small study, I really need to see the diet composition and macro nutritent breakdown on those subjects following the GF diet. However part of the problem with gluten-free diets is a lack of soluable and non-soluable fiber found in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, which give gut flora something to feast on. If the gluten-free diet consisted only of meat and refined gluten-free flours, than yes I can see a problem right off the bat.


Gluten-free diet not friendly to gut bacteria: Study
By Stephen Daniells, 19-May-2009
Related topics: Science & Nutrition

Following a gluten-free diet may be detrimental to gut health, which may also affect immune health, according to a new study from the Spanish National Research Council.

According to results of a small study with 10 people consuming a gluten-free diet, populations of beneficial gut bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, decreased, while counts for Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli increased.

“Thus, the gluten-free diet may constitute an environmental variable to be considered in treated coeliac disease patients for its possible effects on gut health,” wrote the authors in the British Journal of Nutrition.

Coeliac disease, a condition characterized by an intolerance to gluten in wheat, is reported to affect up to 1 per cent of children and 1.2 per cent of adults, according to a study in the BMJ’s Gut journal.

“Coeliac disease is a permanent intolerance to cereal gluten proteins and the only therapy for the patients is to adhere to a life-long gluten-free diet (GFD),” explained the authors, led by Giada De Palma.

According to a recent report from Packaged Facts, the gluten-free market has grown at an average annual rate of 28 per cent since 2004, when it was valued at $580m, to reach $1.56bn last year. Packaged Facts estimates that sales will be worth $2.6bn by 2012.

New data

The Spanish researchers analysed the gut microflora of ten healthy subjects with an average age of 30 assigned to consume a gluten-free diet for one month. Consumption of the gluten-free diet did not change significantly the normal dietary intakes for the volunteers, except for polysaccharides, which were reduced.

Analysis of the participants’ faeces showed that Bifidobacterium, Clostridium lituseburense and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii populations decreased following the gluten-free diet patter, while populations of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli increased.

Markers of immune health, such TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-8, which would be produced when the host’s immune system is challenged, were also reduced following consumption of the gluten-free diet.

“Therefore, the GFD led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations and the ability of faecal samples to stimulate the host's immunity,” concluded the researchers.

Digestive health

Products aimed at gut health have traditionally been much more popular in Europe than North America, but this is changing as Americans embrace the idea of boosting gut health via foods and beverages.

Europe still leads the way in terms of product launches and market value, but North America is catching up fast, due in part to the remarkable success of Danone’s DanActive in North America. The gut health product was launched there in 2005 and built on its Activia presence.

Source: British Journal of Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, First View article, doi:10.1017/S0007114509371767
“Effects of a gluten-free diet on gut microbiota and immune function in healthy adult human subjects”
Authors: G. De Palma, I. Nadal, M.C. Collado, Y. Sanz 

GF Diet not friendly to gut bacteria 23 May 2009 11:43 #599

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A related article:

Protein-fibre combo offers ‘promising’ gluten-free options
By Stephen Daniells, 18-May-2009
Related topics: Science & Nutrition , Cereals and bakery preparations , Proteins, non-dairy

Adding protein and fibre sources like pea protein and Psyllium fibre may improve the physical structure of gluten-free dough, and boost the nutritional content, says a new study.

Writing in Food Research International, researchers from the University of Milan and Michigan State University state that Psyllium fibre enhanced the physical properties of the dough by forming a film-like structure. Combining this with a continuous protein phase was found to be “critical for the workability of a gluten-free dough”, they said.

“Generally, the more complex experimental formulations (containing corn starch, amaranth flour, pea isolate and Psyllium fibre) investigated in this research looked promising in terms of final bread technological and nutritional quality, even when compared to commercial mixtures already present on the market,” wrote the authors, led by Manuela Mariotti.

The study taps into the growing trend for enhanced gluten-free foods, a rapidly growing market. According to a recent report from Packaged Facts, the gluten-free market has grown at an average annual rate of 28 per cent since 2004, when it was valued at $580m, to reach $1.56bn last year. Packaged Facts estimates that sales will be worth $2.6bn by 2012.

Coeliac disease, a condition characterized by an intolerance to gluten in wheat, is reported to affect up to 1 per cent of children and 1.2 per cent of adults, according to a study in the BMJ’s Gut journal.

Study details

Using corn starch, amaranth flour, pea isolate, and Psyllium fibre, Mariotti and her co-workers formulated six types of gluten-free dough, containing different levels of the ingredients: 0 or 40 per cent amaranth flour, 1 or 6 per cent pea isolate, and 0 or 2 per cent Psyllium fibre. Corn starch levels were varied in response to the amounts of the other ingredients used.

In terms of handling and workability, the researchers found that the worst product was, made mainly of corn starch (94 per cent), while replacing 2 per cent corn starch with 2 per cent Psyllium fibre improved both the structure and workability of the dough, “indicating that Psyllium fiber, despite the higher amount of water required to form a dough, could act as an improver of the cohesion of starchy matrix,” said the researchers.
The best performance was observed for the formulations containing all four ingredients: 57 per cent corn starch, 40 per cent amaranth flour, 1 per cent pea isolate, and 2 per cent Psyllium fibre; or 52 per cent corn starch, 40 per cent amaranth flour, 6 per cent pea isolate, and 2 per cent Psyllium fibre.

The researchers also noted that staling of the new formulations would be delayed.

“Psyllium fiber generally enhanced the physical properties of the doughs, due to the film-like structure that it was able to form, and the most complex among the experimental formulations looked promising in terms of final bread technological and nutritional quality even when compared to two different commercial GF mixtures,” concluded the researchers.

Source: Food Research International
Published online ahead of print, 7 May 2009, doi:
"The role of corn starch, amaranth flour, pea isolate, and Psyllium flour on the rheological properties and the ultrastructure of gluten-free doughs"
Authors: M. Mariotti, V.G. Celoria, M. Lucisano, M.A. Pagani, P.K.W. Ng
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