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What is Gluten and Dairy Intolerance? What is the difference between an allergy and intolerance/sensitivity. Latest medical research. Open to the public.
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TOPIC: Wheat breeding may contributed to increased prev of Celiac

Wheat breeding may contributed to increased prev of Celiac 20 Sep 2010 13:03 #628

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Theor Appl Genet. 2010 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease.
van den Broeck HC , de Jong HC , Salentijn EM , Dekking L , Bosch D , Hamer RJ , Gilissen LJ , van der Meer IM , Smulders MJ .

Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, hetty.busink@wur.nl


Abstract
Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD.

 During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause.

To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-alpha9 and Glia-alpha20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-alpha9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-alpha20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-alpha9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-alpha20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes.

On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of 'low CD toxic' as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD.

 

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